capacidad amortiguadora, niveles de IgAs, volumen minuto, cal- cio y relación Ca/P Key words: celiac disease, saliva, oral ecosystem, presumptive diagnosis . To quantify salivary flow, 5 minutes was clocked to obtain saliva in a test tube and .. y su relación con el flujo salival y la capacidad amortiguadora de la saliva. Sample harvesting was conducted according to the non-stimulated saliva .. 9: Téllez M. pH Salival y su capacidad amortiguadora como factor de riesgo de.

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To compare a limited salica of chewing-stimulated saliva features salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity in a sample of elderly Mexicans with clinical, sociodemographic and socio-economic variables. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adults, 60 years old and older, from two retirement homes and a senior day care centre in the city of Pachuca, Mexico. Socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were collected through a questionnaire.

A trained and standardized examiner obtained the oral clinical variables. Chewing-stimulated saliva paraffin method was collected and amorttiguadora salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were measured.

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The amortivuadora was performed using non-parametric tests in Stata 9. Mean age was Most of the subjects included were women Mean chewing-stimulated salivary flow was 0.

These exploratory data add to the body of knowledge with amortigiadora to chewing-stimulated salivary features salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity and outline the variability of those features across selected sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables in a group of Mexican elders. La edad promedio fue Strictly speaking, saliva is defined as a mixed exocrine fluid secretion produced by the salivary glands parotid, submandibular, sublingual and minor salivary glands.

The term saliva usually refers to the hypotonic fluid secreted by the salivary glands, but it is also used to represent the combination of all oral fluids. Saliva contains water, mucin, protein, minerals, enzymes, blood, food and cellular debris and resident micro-organisms of the mouth. Its production is controlled by the autonomic nervous system 12. It can have a fluid or viscous texture and it can also have certain biochemical variation depending on the gland producing it. Human saliva does not only lubricate the oral tissues, it also helps other functions such as speaking, eating, swallowing and protecting teeth and oral mucosa.

Resting saliva mainly serves the lubrication and antimicrobial functions. In contrast, stimulated saliva is primarily involved in washing off food debris and harmful agents 3.

Furthermore, saliva also has some important biological properties such as its capacity to act as a buffer against the acids produced by micro-organisms or ingested through the diet, allowing it to keep a relatively constant pH 4. The protective functions of the saliva are not limited to the above functions 35.

From the standpoint of dentistry, the most important functions of saliva in preventing caries are its rinsing and buffering effects, in addition to moderating the demineralization and remineralization processes by supplying a constant source of calcium and phosphates.

Jawed et al 6 found that certain salivary parameters such as salivary flow and pH are related to one another. A reduction in salivary flow results in a significant decline in the oral defence systems, which can cause caries and inflammation of the oral mucosa 347.

Moreover, it entails a number of significant clinical problems and discomfort that may manifest as caries increment, increased susceptibility to thrush, altered taste sensation, and halitosis, among other problems 8. Ageing produces many biological, chemical and physiological changes that may contribute to modifying salivary characteristics 9 Elderly people generally have health amorriguadora that force them dr take medications, further altering saliva characteristics 9.

To our knowledge, the clinical characteristics of the saliva in the elderly have not been fully ascertained. The aim of the present study was to compare a limited array of salivary parameters salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity among Amortuguadora elderly subjects, 60 years old and older, with associated clinical, sociodemographic and socio-economic variables.

The present exploratory analysis is a part of a project that measured various indicators of oral health in the elderly. It complied with the national and international ethical regulations in force and it was approved by the research ethics committee of the Post Graduate and Research Unit of the Academic Area of Dentistry, the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico.

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Part of the methodology, including risk indicators for edentulism 11 and root caries 12has been previously published. We conducted a cross-sectional study in elderly individuals, 60 years old and older, who were living in two retirement homes or attending a day care group of elderly people living independently. After obtaining the relevant permits, we invited the subjects to participate in the study, informing them about the aims of the research, the confidentiality in data management, and the fact that they could stop participating at any moment in the study.

We did not use any sampling approach. The initial study group included subjects. The final sample was subjects. The dependent variables were salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity. To obtain the stimulated salivary flow, we followed standard capacidda The samples were collected at 7: Each patient sat in an upright and relaxed posture, and was given one gram of paraffin Merck to chew in order to stimulate saliva production; then the patient was placed with the head tilted forward so saliva could be collected from the floor of the mouth.

Salivary pH measurements were recorded for each sample. Saoiva samples of one millilitre of saliva were prepared to measure salivary buffer capacity through a standardized method lq hydrochloric acid titration In this procedure, we added 3 mL of hydrochloric acid HCl; 0.

For the analysis of pH and buffer capacity, 22 subjects were excluded because we could not obtain the necessary amount of saliva for the analysis, so for these two variables, only the results for subjects were presented.

Questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic variables such as age, gender and marital status; socio-economic variables included type of senior organization, having received social security support and maximum amortiguaddora of schooling, as well as other information such as having received radiation on the head or the neck, tobacco consumption, soda consumption, presence of chronic diseases, medication use and frequency of tooth brushing.

Also, a clinical examination was performed to identify oral health indicators, such as number of missing teeth, edentate status and use of denture status.

The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of saliva during and after pregnancy

Clinical examination was performed by a single examiner who was previously standardized and trained, using a flat dental mirror and a World Health Organization WHO type periodontal saliba on the patient sitting in a room with artificial light. The information collected from questionnaires and clinical examination was analysed in Stata 9. First, we performed a descriptive analysis of the population by using central tendency and amortiguafora measures for the quantitative variables, and frequency and percentages for the qualitative variables.

Subsequently, bivariate analyses were performed to determine if there was any difference in the distribution of chewing-stimulated salivary characteristics flow, salivary pH and buffer capacity across the different variables included in the study. As a first step, we verified the salivary variables distribution with the Shapiro-Wilk test. As long as they had a non-normal distribution according to the measurement scale of variables tested, the non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, and the non-parametric amorttiguadora for trends were used.

The study included elderly subjects, 60 years old and older. Table 1 shows the descriptive results of the sample. Most of them were women Regarding socio-economic status variables, unfavourable features were often observed: Table 1 also shows that only a relatively small percentage was free of chronic diseases It was observed that only 4. A third of the subjects consumed soft drinks frequently Tooth brushing was practiced frequently by With regard to dental features, tooth loss numbering zero to 10 teeth, 11 to 20 teeth, and 21 to 28 teeth were Mean missing teeth were Mean chewing-stimulated salivary flow for participants was 0.

Subjects with a tooth brushing frequency at least twice a day had higher chewing-stimulated salivary flow than those with lower frequency 0. Also, in the non-parametric test for trends, a negative trend was observed: The use of any type of dental prosthesis had a marginal effect on chewing-stimulated salivary flow 0. Those who replaced their missing teeth had higher chewing-stimulated salivary flow than those who did not replace them. This situation was replicated with respect to age, marital status, schooling, whether or not social security was received, the type of retirement home, caapacidad received radiation therapy, tobacco or soft drinks consumption, or the presence of chronic diseases.


Table 3 shows the bivariate analysis of salivary pH across categories of independent variables. Seniors in the private home had the highest pH 8. Age had no significant difference but we could observe a slight trend in pH values: Gender, marital status, having social security, maximum level of schooling, having received radiation, sailva or capcidad consumption, presence of chronic diseases, tooth brushing patterns, the number of missing teeth, and denture use did not show significant differences.

With regard to buffer capacity, results are shown in Table 4. The type of retirement home had significant differences: But we noticed a negative trend between the variables when the non-parametric test for trends ajortiguadora used: Results of other independent variables non-significant are shown in Table 4. The present manuscript characterized chewing-stimulated salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity in a group of elderly Mexicans, showing that there are some changes that may be associated with certain clinical, socio-economic and behavioural variables.

These features are useful as adjuncts in the diagnosis of various oral and systemic diseases and therefore the information has clinical value from a dental practice perspective Salivary flow varies according to the different parts of the mouth where it is measured, and also between persons and across different biological situations. A number of studies that focussed on salivary flow evaluation revealed wide variations between individuals from different origins.

For example, in Greek adults, the average was 1 to 4. In Japanese adults 60 years old and older, it was 1. Our values were similar to those reported in Brazil, which was 0. For our study subjects in whom pH could actually be calculated, the mean was 7.

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The buffer capacity reported in our study was 4. These differences may be due to the age of the subjects in the samples, the ethnic group, the methodology used for collecting and measuring saliva, or the type of subjects studied — community living individuals, or patients. An association between salivary flow and the number of teeth present in the mouth has been documented in other studies.

Sawair et al 23 conducted a study among adults in Jordan and found that the greater the number of missing teeth, the lower the salivary flow. In a study conducted in Japan 17they observed that a greater number of teeth in the mouth was directly associated with salivary flow. Our results are consistent with both studies. Although not explicitly studied, we observed that when missing teeth were replaced through prostheses, salivary flow was higher.

It has been suggested that both chewing and biting force are involved in salivary gland secretion 17 ; this link has been documented in experimental studies in which periodontal mechanic receptor activation leads to salivary flow increase It is possible that there is an increased stimulation in subjects with more natural or prosthetic teeth, apparently confirmed by the results of this study. Although the buffer capacity in relation to the number of teeth present was not specifically addressed in the present research, we also observed that the higher the number of missing teeth, the lower the buffer capacity values.

A study conducted in Japan 26 observed that tooth brushing increased the secretion of the parotid gland, probably via the activation of periodontal mechanoreceptors. In another study 27tooth brushing increased the production of saliva in patients affected by xerostomia. Our results are consistent with these findings. Although the impact of variables other than biologic or physiologic factors on salivary flow has been sparsely studied, we observed that a socio-economic indicator appeared to be related: