View the profiles of people named Enzo Rullani. Join Facebook to connect with Enzo Rullani and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to. In postfordism, knowledge appears as disembodied both from capital and labour, and is simultaneously presented as a fundamental resource and a product. Persistent link: :fan:eseses:v:html/ es Ordering information: This journal article can be ordered from.

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Exports or direct investment can be considered only as apparent indications of a deeper process, namely access — through network relations — to international variety, and, in particular, to the international variety of accumulated.

This paper maintains that the theoretical myopia we suffer in this field is due to a sort of optical illusion, that arises from two sources of ambiguity: In postfordism, knowledge appears as disembodied both from capital and labour, and is simultaneously presented as a fundamental resource and a product. In this third case, that has become more and more common in recent years, small firms are part of a larger system of production, exchange and utilisation of the relevant knowledge, on which the individual competitive advantage mostly depends.

Segmentation du travail cognitif et individualisation du salaire.

As a matter of fact, after decades of failed attempts, it proved impossible to reduce the following situations to the same theoretical model of the small firm: The picture that emerges is based on three points: In other words, exports are neither merely the result of a pure market as in the case of spot salesnor of a hierarchy as is the case for multinationals.

All these networks or quasi-networks widen the base for the division of labour in the production and use of knowledge.

In fact, once it has been produced, knowledge can be replicated at very low cost Di Bernardo This is true, above all, when you consider that the most dynamic firms seem to regard the ability to set up and maintain relations within the chain as being the most important strategic factor in their movement towards internationalisation.

It would be incorrect to classify them as scarcely internationalised or not internationalised at all, as would be the case according to traditional theory, since, in reality, they simply possess another form of internationalisation ; a form that to traditional theory could appear as invisible as the organising hand that is supposed to assist inter-firm market relations.

Pillole dei Saggi – Enzo Rullani, Venice International University

An alternative approach in considering small size and internationalisation states that, nowadays, an efficient link with the international economy is not yet an option, but a necessary condition for competitive survival in most modern industries and countries. Small firms can be considered as “international” as multinational, if they actively take part, as specialised units, in international value chains that are able to grant them valid access to external variety, uniting their internal learning process to the wider process that is working in the global economy.


Naturally, in order to take advantage of this opportunity, the cost of adapting the original knowledge to specific applications and to specific national contexts must be sustained.

The firm uses the chain as a means of putting into circulation not only the originality of its knowledge and its entrepreneurial strength, but also the organisational and professional resources within the local environment and even the sources of finance and services available on site 3. Peter Jones – – Outlines. These interactive networks, by creating the conditions for communication, aim to facilitate the transfer of formal and informal knowledge held by different organisations.

Please fill in a complete birthday Enter a valid birthday. As a matter of fact, since the s several studies have shown that many small- sized firms are able to survive and prosper in industries and countries that are highly developed and open to international competition. Cookies are short reports that are sent and stored on the hard drive rrullani the user’s computer through your browser when it connects to a web. In the production of competitive advantages, it is not very important if a single firm is highly or scarcely internationalised.

Core activities will have to be involved in the internationalisation process so as to relaunch the international learning process along wider lines 5. Therefore, in our nezo we will consider not an average and non-existent small firm, but only firms of the third kind, assuming the hypothesis that each small firm acts and learns inside a larger network of suppliers and clients.

Later, however, when it became clear that a firm’s international activities transcended mere trade, it became necessary to open a new “specialisation”, finding a point of reference within the multinational company. Consequently, the object of a theory of internationalisation cannot be any rullai the firm as an independent and self-sustained unit.

In this sense, the firms-network system represents a unitary learning organisation. So scarce is its visibility that economic theory might put it down to the invisible rullaji unprogrammed “hand” of the market. New networks take shape through the development of modern information technology computing, telecommunications, industrial automation and take on a distinctive characteristic in knowledge formalised by technology Rullani, An international firm, therefore, is not a firm that exports or a firm that invests abroad.

Under some conditions many studies consider the largest multinational companies as global firms Dnzo, a and rulllani ; Porter, or trans-national firms Bartlett, Ghoshal,thus officially excluding the vast group of lesser firms from the process of evolution towards internationalisation. The two forms mentioned above, however, are not the only means possible for knowledge to be transferred, and neither are they ideal solutions to the problem.


Monthly downloads Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart. In order to demonstrate this statement, and more generally speaking to underline the crucial role that the circulation of knowledge rullanu always played in international economics, we should proceed in stages.

In fact, exports are the reward for a firm’s search to establish relations with trade intermediaries, to build up eenzo channels which are readily accessible, to come into contact with industrial clients in order to establish preferential relations, and to have an active.

The reason for their existence lies in the economy of production and the use of knowledge, since: Therefore, the meaning of the small firm’s internationalisation becomes complex. In this paper, the reasons behind the absence of small firms in the theories of internationalisation are first of all examined.

Enter the code below and hit Verify. The cheap production of specialised knowledge through division of labour is the motive force for innovation both inside single firms internal specialisation and between firms external. Yann Moulier Boutang – – Multitudes Rather, they are the expression of the international dimension of a firm’s value chain. For each member firm of the chain, the degree of internationalisation is high if the network of relations that is constructed and managed by the chain succeeds in granting efficient access to world-wide knowledge that has to be acquired machines, materials, components, services etc.

An Economic Analysis of U. On the contrary, it greatly depends on the degree of access to the variety of competences, resources, and capabilities that are distributed throughout the world economy.

Pillole dei Saggi – Enzo Rullani, Venice International University – video dailymotion

Should I pay a subscription fee to always have free shipping? In effect, division of labour, specialised learning and a system for integration are, rullni, the main competitive weapons both for large and small firms. Costellazioni e piccoli gruppi, II Mulino, Bologna. We will then go on to define the conditions required to construct a general theory that will be valid for both large and small firms.